• A Nationally Representative Study of Calcific Uremic Arteriolopathy Risk Factors
    A Nationally Representative Study of Calcific Uremic Arteriolopathy Risk Factors

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    Accurate identification of risk factors for calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) is necessary to develop preventive strategies for this morbid disease. We investigated whether baseline factors recorded at hemodialysis initiation would identify patients at risk for future CUA in a matched case-control study using data from a large dialysis organization. Hemodialysis patients with newly diagnosed CUA (n=1030) between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014, were matched by age, sex, and race in a 1:2 ratio to hemodialysis patients without CUA (n=2060). Mean ages for patients and controls were 54 and 55 years, respectively; 67% of participants were women and 49% were white. Median duration between hemodialysis initiation and subsequent CUA development was 925 days (interquartile range, 273-2185 days). In multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses, diabetes mellitus; higher body mass index; higher levels of serum calcium, phosphorous, and parathyroid hormone; and nutritional vitamin D, cinacalcet, and warfarin treatments were associated with increased odds of subsequent CUA development. Compared with patients with diabetes receiving no insulin injections, those receiving insulin injections had a dose-response increase in the odds of CUA involving lower abdomen and/or upper thigh areas (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 2.51 for one or two injections per day; odds ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.30 to 3.43 for 3 injections per day; odds ratio, 3.74; 95% confidence interval, 2.28 to 6.25 for more than three injections per day), suggesting a dose-effect relationship between recurrent skin trauma and CUA risk. The presence of risk factors months to years before CUA development observed in this study will direct the design of preventive strategies and inform CUA pathobiology

    Nigwekar SU, Zhao S, Wenger J, Hymes JL, Maddux FW, Thadhani RI, Chan KE
  • Are there ways to attenuate arterial calcification and improve cardiovascular outcomes in chronic kidney disease?
    Are there ways to attenuate arterial calcification and improve cardiovascular outcomes in chronic kidney disease?


    The risk of cardiovascular mortality among patients with end-stage renal disease is several times higher than general population. Arterial calcification, a marker of atherosclerosis and a predictor of cardiovascular mortality, is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and advanced age cannot fully explain the high prevalence of atherosclerosis and arterial calcification. Other factors specific to CKD such as hyperphosphatemia, excess of calcium, high dose active vitamin D and prolonged dialysis vintage play important roles in the development of arterial calcification. Due to the significant health risk, it is prudent to attempt to lower arterial calcification burden in CKD. Treatment of hyperlipidemia with statin has failed to lower atherosclerotic and arterial calcification burden. Data on diabetes and blood pressure controls as well as smoking cessation on cardiovascular outcomes in CKD population are limited. Currently available treatment options include non-calcium containing phosphate binders, low dose active vitamin D, calcimimetic agent and perhaps bisphosphonates, vitamin K and sodium thiosulfate. Preliminary data on bisphosphonates, vitamin K and sodium thiosulfate are encouraging but larger studies on efficacy and outcomes are needed.

    World J Cardiol. 2014 May 26; 6(5): 216–226.

    Thanh-Mai Vo, Sinee Disthabanchong
  • Calciphylaxis: Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Treatment
    Calciphylaxis: Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Treatment


    Calciphylaxis is a rare but devastating condition that has continued to challenge the medical community since its early descriptions in the scientific literature many decades ago. It is predominantly seen in patients with chronic kidney failure treated with dialysis (uremic calciphylaxis) but is also described in patients with earlier stages of chronic kidney disease and with normal kidney function. In this review, we discuss the available medical literature regarding risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of both uremic and nonuremic calciphylaxis. High-quality evidence for the evaluation and management of calciphylaxis is lacking at this time due to its rare incidence and poorly understood pathogenesis and the relative paucity of collaborative research efforts. We hereby provide a summary of recommendations developed by a multidisciplinary team for patients with calciphylaxis.

    S U Nigwekar and co-workers